Dys means difficulty and calculia is derived from the Latin word for calculus meaning small stone. In the original context it refers to the ancient use of pebbles used for counting which later developed into the abacus. This earlier use of stones as “mind tools” or concrete representations of concepts, suggests that physical interaction has been used as an aid to support and precede conceptual understanding of numbers for generations. “Sally Goddard”


Dyscalculia describes developmental lag of 1 year or more in the acquisition of numerical skills, including:

  • Inability to recognise number symbols

  • Mirror writing (directional)

  • Failure to recognise mathematical operations involved in computation or problem solving (procedural sequencing)

  • Inability to recall tables (sequencing)

  • Inability to maintain proper order of numbers in calculation.

  • Difficulties with sequencing of times tables.