The body is a complex system. In the womb and during early life the body’s brainstem has several reflexes called ‘primitive’ or ‘neonatal’ reflexes. In fact there are 70 known primary reflexes. These reflexes occur during the life stages when the decision making process has not fully developed. In simple terms, a baby's initial movements will be reflex-based and those movements are predictable, repetitive, and subject to specific incoming stimulus.These reflexes help us grow properly and safely. As one matures, these reflexes are no longer needed and the higher brain takes control. It is an essential stage for normal development allowing one to perform more complex tasks.
However, as a result of developmental restrictions or trauma at birth these reflexes may remain dominant. This means that the nervous system will react inappropriately in certain situations. This in turn may then affect development, learning and behaviour.
What are the primary retained reflexes that affect educational progress and learning in the classroom?
Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR):
This is seen when babies turn their head to one side and the limbs on that side straighten while the limbs on the other side bend. This reflex should disappear at 6 months.
The retention of this reflex causes the most interface with a child’s learning process. Problems that can occur may include:
Handwriting: Each time a child turns their head to look at the page, their arm will want to extend and the fingers will want to open. Holding and working a pen or pencil for any length of time will require enormous effort.
Reading: Eye tracking difficulties can occur when reading as the eyes do not move smoothly from one side of the page to the other. This can result in loosing your place, loss of accuracy and loss of comprehension.
Mixed Laterality: This means that the child may use left and right hands interchangeably for the same task. The effect of mixed laterality can be failure to send information to the most efficient centre of the brain for that skill.
Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR):
This reflex allows the baby to straighten its arms and bend its legs when it looks up. The STNR reflex is normally lost at 8 months after birth. If it is not lost, it can affect a child’s ability to crawl on hands and knees.
This in turn may affect development of hand-eye co-ordination
as this is facilitated during the crawling phase.
Other symptoms of retained STNR include:
• Poor posture
• Tendency to slump when sitting, particularly at a desk
• Poor hand-eye coordination
• Messy eating
• Difficulty with catching balls
• Slow at copying from the blackboard
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR):
The TLR is the opposite of STNR. When a baby looks up TLR causes the baby to straighten it’s legs and arms, likewise when the head goes down the limbs fold in. This reflex should be fully present from the time of birth to 4 months old. It is linked to balance and muscle tone. If this reflex persists it will disrupt balance and gross motor skills.
Symptoms of this retained reflex can include: